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如何处理好水利工程施工中的变更与索赔

YOUYUSHUILIGONGCHENGSHIGONGJUYOUGONGCHENGLIANGDA,TOUZIDUO,JIEGOUFUZA,JISHU、ZHILIANGYAOQIUGAO,GONGQIZHANGDENGTEDIAN,GONGCHENGJIANSHEGUOCHENGZHONGXUDUOBUQUEDINGYINSUZAOCHENGDEYINGXIANGJIAODA,JINGCHANGFASHENGSHEJIBIANGENG、SHIGONGTIAOJIANBIANHUA、GONGQIDIAOZHENGSUOPEIDENGHETONGSHIJIAN。DANGQIANSHUILIGONGCHENGJIANZHUSHICHANGJINGZHENGJILIE,SHIGONGQIYEYIBANCAIYONGDIJIAZHONGBIAO、GAOESUOPEIDESHICHANGCELVE。YINCIZUOHAOSHIGONGGUOCHENGZHONGDEBIANGENGHESUOPEIGONGZUO,JIUXIANDEYOUWEIZHONGYAO。BIANGENGHESUOPEISHISHIGONGQIYEZAIGONGCHENGZHONGHUOLIDEZHONGYAOSHOUDUAN,SHIGONGCHENGXIANGMUGUANLIZHONGDEZHONGYAOHUANJIE。

GONGCHENGBIANGENGYUSUOPEIGONGZUOSHIYIXIANGSHEJIZHAOTOUBIAO、SHEJI、SHIGONG、JUNGONGYANSHOUDEQUANGUOCHENGGUANLI,YAOZUOHAOZHEIXIANGGONGZUO,BUJINYAOSHANYUFAXIANHEBAWOSHIJI,HAIYAOSHANYUSHOUJI、ZHENGLIYUBIANGENGSUOPEIYOUGUANDEYIJUHEZILIAO,BINGQIEZAICHULIBIANGENGSUOPEIDEGUOCHENGZHONGHAIXUYAOYOUYIDINGDECELVEHEJIQIAO。

一、树立全员变更索赔意识

GONGCHENGBIANGENGHESUOPEIGONGZUOJUYOUFANWEIGUANG、FUZAFANSUO、ZONGHEXINGQIANGDETEDIAN,XUYAOXIANGMUGUANLIDEJISHU、SHIGONG、CAIWU、CAILIAODENGBUMENGONGTONGCANYU、XIEDIAOHEZUO,CAINENGQUDECHENGGONG。YINCI,SHIGONGQIYEYIDINGYAOTIGAORENSHI,ZHONGSHIGONGCHENGBIANGENGHESUOPEIGONGZUO,BUDUANJIAQIANGXIANGMUCHENGYUANDEYEWUJISHUPEIXUN,JIANLIQUANYUANSUOPEIYISHI,TIGAORENSHIBIANGENGHESUOPEISHIJIANDEMINGANXING,ZAIGONGCHENGXIANGMUTOUBIAODAOJUNGONGDEQUANGUOCHENGZHONGDOUSHULIQIBIANGENGHESUOPEIYISHI。

二、加强变更索赔管理团队建设

BIANGENGSUOPEIRENYUANBUDANYAOJUYOUFENGFUDEGONGCHENGJISHUZHISHIHESHIJISHIGONGJINGYAN,HAIYAOYOUJINGJI、FALVFANGMIANDEZHISHIYIJILIANGHAODEGONGGUANNENGLI;JINENGYUYEZHU、JIANLIYOULIANGHAODEGONGSHIGUANXI,BIYAOSHIYEYAOGANYUJULILIZHENGWEIHUSHIGONGQIYEDEYINGDELIYI。WEICI,YAOZHELIJIANSHEYIZHIJIDONGGONGCHENGJISHUYOUDONGJINGJIGUANLIDEBIANGENGSUOPEIDUIWU,XUANZENEIXIEYEWUSUZHIGAO、XUEXINENGLIQIANG、ZHISHIMIANGUANG、ZERENXINQIANGDERENYUANCHONGSHIBIANGENGHESUOPEIGUANLITUANDUI。

三、完善变更索赔管理制度

在一般的项目管理体系中,合同部与工程部是相互平行的管理部门,都对项目经理负责,使项目经理能够及时准确地了解工程的各种情况,从整体上把握工程的进展。但是,从变更索赔管理的角度来看,合同部与工程部的相对独立会使合同部信息采集滞后,不利于合同部对变更索赔项目的跟踪,从而影响变更索赔的基础工作。

变更索赔管理是一项系统性很强的工作,它必须融合于整个工程项目管理之中。计划合同部要与其他管理职能部门如施工技术部、质量检验部、物资供应部及综合办公室等密切结合,完善变更索赔管理制度,促进部门之间的横向协作,使合同部门能够及时准确的了解施工项目中的各种信息,为做好变更索赔工作夯实基础。

1、搞好合同与生产的接口

①、合同部每天派专人在现场组织协调认量签证工作,对现场发生的各种变化及时记录,为变更索赔收集基础资料;

②、合同部负责人参加每天的生产协调会,对超出合同范围的工作及时跟踪,对变更索赔进行动态管理;

③、分管合同的领导参加每周的监理例会和业主协调会,就需要解决的变更索赔问题及时与监理、业主进行沟通。

2、搞好合同与技术的接口

①、当重大技术方案直接涉及施工成本又可能涉及变更索赔时,合同部全程参与重大技术方案的讨论和决策;

②、所有技术方案和技术变更均报送分管合同的领导,由合同部门进行经济分析。

3、实施合同交底制度

要求合同管理人员将合同涉及的注意事项、各岗位的合同责任交待清楚,将承包合同所明确的各层次的经济责任进行交底,使工作人员知道哪些工作是合同内的,哪些工作属于变更索赔项目的范围。

四、重视变更索赔证据收集

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五、正确处理好与业主、监理的关系

BIANGENGSUOPEIBIXUQUDEJIANLIDERENKECAINENGSHENGXIAO,YINCI,BIANGENGSUOPEIDECHENGGONGYUFOU,JIANLIQIZHEZHIJIEDEGUANJIANXINGZUOYONG,TONGSHIBIANGENGSUOPEIZHIJIEGUANXIDAOYEZHUDELIYI,CHENGBAOSHANGBIANGENGSUOPEIDECHENGBAIZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGQUJUEYUYEZHUDETAIDU。YINCI,YAOZHENGQUECHULIHAOYUYEZHU、JIANLIZHIJIANDEGUANXI,ZAISHIJIGONGZUOZHONGSHULILIANGHAODEXINYU,GAOHAOXIANGHUGUANXI,BAOCHIYOUHAOHEZUODEQIFEN.HUXIANGXINREN,DUIYEZHUHUOJIANLIDEGUOSHI,CHENGBAOSHANGYINGBIAOSHILIJIEHETONGQING,YONGZHENCHENGHUANQUDUIFANGDEXINRENHELIJIE,CHUANGZAOSUOPEIDEPINGHEQIFEN.BIMIANGANQINGSHANGDEZHANGAI。

六、掌握变更索赔谈判技巧

    变更和索赔管理工作能否取得成功,与业主、设计、管理各方的协调沟通是重点,因此,掌握一定的谈判策略和技巧必不可少。首先,在谈判之前要做好充分准备,对谈判可能出现的问题要做好充分准备,做到有问必答,有的放矢。其次,谈判要在和谐友好的气氛中进行,从业主关心的议题入手,从业主关心的问题谈起,要随时研究和掌握对方的心理,了解对方的意图,要讲事实,重依据,坚持原则,据理力争,又要机动灵活,适当让步,语言友善,以理服人,求得对方的理解;善于利用机遇,因势利导,用长远合作的利益来启发和打动对方。再次,准备有进有退的策略,该争的要争,该让的要让,使双方有得有失,寻求折衷办法。最后,要有坚持到底的糟神,经受得住挫折的思想准备,对分歧意见,应相互考虑对方的观点,共同寻求妥善的解决办法。

七、采取变更索赔策略应用

BIANGENGSUOPEICELVEYESHIYINGXIANGBIANGENGSUOPEIGONGZUONENGFOUSHUNLIJINXINGDEZHONGYAOYINSU,YIXIACELVEKEYISHIBIANGENGSUOPEIGONGZUOSHIBANGONGBEI:

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2、BUPINGHENGBAOJIACELVE:SHIGONGQIYEZAITOUBIAOJIEDUANKECAIQUBUPINGHENGDEBAOJIACELVE,WEIJIANGLAIBIANGENGSUOPEIZUOHAOPUDIANGONGZUO。

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